KING
 

 
 

KING Download History

KING 2.2.7, May 18, 2021

Linux-king227.tar.gz  For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Mac-king227.tar.gz    For Mac Workstations
Windows-king227.zip   For Windows Workstations
KING2.2.7code.tar.gz  C++ source code

Major changes in KING 2.2.7 include:

1. The same bug introduced in version 2.2.5 for --ibdseg is now completly fixed.
2. A few other minor improvements, including the new KING website "kingrelatedness.com" when king is typed.


KING 2.2.6, March 23, 2021

Linux-king226.tar.gz  For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Mac-king226.tar.gz    For Mac Workstations
Windows-king226.zip   For Windows Workstations
KING2.2.6code.tar.gz  C++ source code

Major changes in KING 2.2.6 include:

1. A bug in --ibdseg that caused a small proportion of datasets not able to finish running in version 2.2.5 is now fixed
2. --pca --projection --rplot can be used for ancestry inference
3. A number of minor issues are fixed. Sorry for the long delay of this release, partially because of the pandemics.


KING 2.2.5, June 5, 2020

Linux-king225.tar.gz  For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Mac-king225.tar.gz    For Mac Workstations
Windows-king225.zip   For Windows Workstations
KING2.2.5code.tar.gz  C++ source code

Major changes in KING 2.2.5 include:

1. A bug in --unrelated is fixed.
2. --ibdseg is substantially improved.
3. --build is improved.
4. A number of minor issues are fixed.


KING 2.2.4, October 11, 2019

Linux-king224.tar.gz  For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Mac-king224.tar.gz    For Mac Workstations
Windows-king224.zip   For Windows Workstations
KING2.2.4code.tar.gz  C++ source code

Major changes in KING 2.2.4 include:

1. All population structure analyses are substantially faster than before.
2. KING is now the tool of choice for Linux users to infer population structure and ancestry.
3. --pcs is newly added to allow the specification of the number of PCs with a default value of 10.


KING 2.2.3, August 9, 2019

Linux-king223.tar.gz  For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Mac-king223.tar.gz    For Mac Workstations
Windows-king223.zip   For Windows Workstations
KING2.2.3code.tar.gz  C++ source code

Major changes in KING 2.2.3 include:

1. The precompiled Linux version of KING now works for all Linux 64 bit systems (e.g., CentOS 7 and Ubuntu)
2. The precompiled Linux version of KING can now infer population structure (--mds, --pca) properly (by using static LAPACK)
3. Precompiled binaries are now available for Windows machines (for most analyses)
4. IBD segment analysis and Run of Homozygosity anaysis now apply to chromosome X as well 
5. A bug is fixed for --related analysis when the number of SNPs is less than 4096


KING 2.2.2, May 29, 2019

Linux-king222.tar.gz  For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Ubuntu-king222.tar.gz For Ubuntu 64 bit systems
Mac-king222.tar.gz    For Mac Workstations
KING2.2.2code.tar.gz  C++ source code

There is only one change in KING 2.2.2. A bug introduced in version 2.2.1 is now fixed. This bug occurs when reading in multiple datasets with identical SNP sets, such as in this example.


KING 2.2.1, May 14, 2019

Linux-king221.tar.gz  For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Ubuntu-king221.tar.gz For Ubuntu 64 bit systems
Mac-king221.tar.gz    For Mac Workstations
KING2.2.1code.tar.gz  C++ source code

Major changes in KING 2.2.1 include:

1. --rplot is improved for multiple KING analyses. See KING Tutorial: Visualization of Families.
  e.g., --roh --rplot generates run of homozygosity plots for each inbred individual
2. A minor bug in --ibdseg and --roh is now fixed (regarding maxIBD1 and maxIBD2, not affecting the main inference)
3. A bug in --build is now fixed
4. -b KG.bed,ex.bed --mds --proj --rplot can infer ancestry of each ex individual using the KG samples as reference


KING 2.2, March 28, 2019

Linux-king22.tar.gz  For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Ubuntu-king22.tar.gz For Ubuntu 64 bit systems
Mac-king22.tar.gz    For Mac Workstations
KING2.2code.tar.gz  C++ source code

Major changes in KING 2.2 include:

1. Visualization of families is now available. See KING Tutorial: Visualization of Families.
2. Multiple datasets as input is even more flexible than before. 
   Now duplicate IDs are allowed between the first dataset (Reference) and other datasets.
3. A bug in --ibdseg --degree 2 is now fixed (which only exists in version 2.1.8)

We believe the current version of KING is rather integrated and relatively stable, and we decided to change the version number to 2.2 (instead of 2.1.9).


KING 2.1.8, February 27, 2019

Linux-king218.tar.gz  For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Ubuntu-king218.tar.gz For Ubuntu 64 bit systems
Mac-king218.tar.gz    For Mac Workstations
KING2.1.8code.tar.gz  C++ source code

Major changes in KING 2.1.8 include:

1. --build has improved and KING pedigree reconstruction can now incorporate 2nd-degree relatedness inference.
2. Drawing pedigrees is now feasible through --rplot or --build --rplot, if R library "kinship2" is installed.
3. One change of memory management improves performance of multiple analyses for biobank-level data.


KING 2.1.6, November 28, 2018

Linux-king216.tar.gz  For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Ubuntu-king216.tar.gz For Ubuntu 64 bit systems
Mac-king216.tar.gz    For Mac Workstations
KING2.1.6code.tar.gz  C++ source code

Major changes in KING 2.1.6 include:

1. Much less computer memory is required than in previous versions. 
   As a result, --lessmem option is retired
2. Max sample size restriction is removed and now 
   --duplicate and --related inferences are applicable to datasets of any size, e.g.,N>10,000,000
3. Multiple datasets can now be read in together, without worrying about allele strands. e.g.,
   king -b ex1,ex2 --duplicate
4. KING now prints out % of progress on the screen while waiting for large data processing
5. --build can now take a rather small sample size (which crashes in previous versions when N<100) 
The largest dataset we have successfully analyzed on a single server with both --duplicate and --related options consists of >10,000,000 samples (i.e., > 50,000,000,000,000 pairs!). I believe both options work easily (in minutes) on any biobank data nowadays and in the near future.


KING 2.1.5, August 24, 2018

Linux-king215.tar.gz  For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Ubuntu-king215.tar.gz For Ubuntu 64 bit systems
Mac-king215.tar.gz    For Mac Workstations (Single-thread version here for Mac without OMP library support)
KING2.1.5code.tar.gz  C++ source code

New options are added in KING 2.1.5, including

1. --sexchr is newly added. Many non-human species can now be analyzed in KING. Default sexchr is 23
2. --risk is fixed and substantially improved. Tutorials for genetic risk score (GRS) and risk prediction are now available
3. --ibdseg can now analyze up to 700,000 samples instead of 256,000 samples as in KING 2.1.4   
Comparing to the previous version of KING 2.1.4, this update may be not crucial for many users.


KING 2.1.4, June 6, 2018

Linux-king214.tar.gz  For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Ubuntu-king214.tar.gz For Ubuntu 64 bit systems
Mac-king214.tar.gz    For Mac Workstations (Single-thread version here for Mac without OMP library support)
KING2.1.4code.tar.gz  C++ source code

A number of algorithms are further improved in KING 2.1.4, including --related, --rplot, etc. KING can now accurately infer up to the 4th-degree relatedness (--related, --ibdseg), while the original KING method (--kinship) remains accurate up to the second-degree relatedness (even in the presence of admixture).


KING 2.1.3, February 13, 2018

Linux-king213.tar.gz  For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Ubuntu-king213.tar.gz For Ubuntu 64 bit systems
Mac-king213.tar.gz    For Mac Workstations (Single-thread version here for Mac without OMP library support)
KING2.1.3code.tar.gz  C++ source code

A number of algorithms are improved in KING 2.1.3, including --ibdseg, --related and --roh. A few bugs have been fixed (including --cluster --bySNP, --build etc).


KING 2.1.2, December 14, 2017

Linux-king212.tar.gz  For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Ubuntu-king212.tar.gz For Ubuntu 64 bit systems
Mac-king212.tar.gz    For Mac Workstations
KING2.1.2code.tar.gz  C++ source code

The IBD segment algorithm is improved in KING 2.1.2.


KING 2.1, October 24, 2017

Linux-king21.tar.gz For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems 
Ubuntu-king21.tar.gz For Ubuntu 64 bit systems 
Mac-king21.tar.gz For Mac Workstations 
KING2.1code.tar.gz C++ source code 

KING 2.1 is a major update. New features include:

1. Improved multi-core parallel computing algorithms 
2. --related option is integrative and more accurate 
3. New functions added: --ibdseg for pair-wise IBD segment inference 


KING 2.0, October 17, 2016

Linux-king20.tar.gz For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Mac-king20.tar.gz For Mac Workstations
Ubuntu-king20.tar.gz For Ubuntu 32 bit systems
Mac-king20-single-thread.gz For Mac users without OpenMP support
KING2.0code.tar.gz C++ source code

KING 2.0 is a major update. New features include:

1. Multi-core parallel computing
2. Improved algorithms. Many KING analyses can now be done in a few seconds (assuming ~10,000 samples)
3. New functions added, e.g., --tdt, --mtscore


KING 1.9, October 10, 2015

Linux-king19.tar.gz For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems

A much faster algorithm is implemented in this beta version. It is now practical to identify all close relatives in 1,000,000 individuals. Please try "king --duplicate", "king --related" or "king --related --degree 2" for inference of duplicates, close relationships up to the first degree, and close relationships up to the second degree, respectively.


KING 1.4.2, 2013

Linux-king142.tar.gz For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems

Due to a popular request, "king --pca --projection" is now available in the released version. This option allows "Hapmap rooted" analysis, in which each study sample is projected to the reference (e.g., Hapmap 3) PC space. Note reference samples need to be indicated as 1 in the phenotype (6th) column, and the study samples need to 2.

KING 1.4, December 14, 2011

Linux-king.tar14.gz For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Windows-king14.zip  For Windows Workstations
Mac-king14.tar.gz  For Mac Workstations
Ubuntu-king14.tar.gz  For Ubuntu Workstations

New implementation: "king --unrelated" or "king --unrelated --degree 2" extracts a list of unrelated individuals


KING 1.3, October 31, 2011

"king --related" or "king --related --degree 2" is now much faster than before. With this newly implemented algorithm, there shouldn't be any computational difficulty for KING to analyze >100,000 individuals.


KING 1.1, March 8, 2011

Linux-king.tar11.gz For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Windows-king11.zip  For Windows Workstations

Algorithms for relationship inference and population structure analysis are further optimized. "--kinship", "--ibs --kinship", "--homo", and "--mds" analyses are all faster than before. One bug in the "--homo" analysis is fixed.

KING 1.0.7, March 7, 2011

Linux-king107.tar.gz For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Windows-king107.zip  For Windows Workstations

A minor bug is fixed in KING version 1.0.7. This bug did not affect any of the KING analyses. The bug involved slight change of SNP positions when new data were generated (through --binary, --plink or --merlin) and when MERLIN format data were used as input.

KING 1.0.5, February 5, 2011

Linux-king.tar105.gz   For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Windows-king105.zip    For Windows Workstations

KING version 1.0.5 is now able to properly perform population structure analysis (MDS) when a PLINK binary dataset is used.

KING 1.0.4, January 18, 2011

Linux-king.tar104.gz   For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Windows-king104.zip    For Windows Workstations

One bug in version 1.0.3 has now been fixed in 1.0.4. Versions older than 1.0.3 did not have this bug. The bug involves reading Merlin format data without the use the map file. KING 1.0.3 in this case reported that no autosome SNPs were found.

KING 1.0.3, January 6, 2011

Linux-king.tar103.gz   For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Windows-king103.zip    For Windows Workstations
Mac-king103.tar.gz     For Mac Workstations
Ubuntu-king103.tar.gz  For Ubuntu 32 bit systems

One bug is fixed. This bug occurred when 1) MERLIN-format input is used; 2) Some SNPs are on X-chromosome; and 3) --individual or --homo analysis is specified. The previous version of KING was running correctly when only one or two conditions held.

KING 1.0.2, Dec 16, 2010

Linux-king.tar102.gz   For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Windows-king102.zip    For Windows Workstations
Mac-king102.tar.gz     For Mac Workstations
Ubuntu-king102.tar.gz  For Ubuntu 32 bit systems

Bugs related to format convertion were identified in previous versions. Luckily none of these affects any of the existing analyses (relationship inference, structure analysis, etc.). If your analysis involves using "--merlin" (saving the data in MERLIN format) previously, please try the new version again.

KING 1.0.1, Nov 1, 2010

Linux-king.tar101.gz   For GNU/LINUX 64 bit systems
Windows-king101.zip    For Windows Workstations
Mac-king101.tar.gz     For Mac Workstations
Ubuntu-king101.tar.gz  For Ubuntu 32 bit systems

KING 1.0.0, Oct 5, 2010

Linux-king100.tar.gz   For GNU/LINUX 64bit systems
Windows-king100.zip    For Windows Workstations
Mac-king100.tar.gz     For Mac Workstations
Ubuntu-king100.tar.gz  For Ubuntu 32 bit systems

REFERENCE

If you find KING helpful, please cite

Manichaikul A, Mychaleckyj JC, Rich SS, Daly K, Sale M, Chen WM (2010) Robust relationship inference in genome wide association studies. Bioinformatics 26(22):2867-2873 [Abstract] [PDF]


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Last updated: March 23, 2021 by Wei-Min Chen


 
 

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